The EPB regulations imposed a calculation rationale for heating end use in residential buildings with people’s habits embedded as default values: whole protected volume heated, indoor temperature 18°C, ventilation and internal gains a fixed function of the protected volume, etc.
Of all parameters defining end use for heating in dwellings, user's habits introduce the largest uncertainty. The term rebound was introduced to cover the fact that improved efficiency ended in more spending. Indeed, lower annual heating costs in energy efficient residential buildings saw inhabitants, if they have to pay the energy themselves, demanding more thermal comfort.
This report describes the state of the art of solar and photovoltaic forecasting models used to facilitate the integration of photovoltaics into electric systems operation, and reduce associated uncertainties. The report represents, as accurately as possible, the international consensus of the Task 14 experts on the subject. Further information on the activities and results of the Task can be found at: www.iea‐pvps.org.Read full article
“Today, any buyer, owner operator or investor who is sophisticated in the wind industry speaks in terms of IEC terminology: a wind class, a turbine design class, turbulence levels, and so on. Everybody understands what is meant. The conversation is more fruitful and constructive and expectations are set more accurately.” Read full article