So goes the old saying, but now it seems disputed. Some ten years ago, the Harvard economist Michel Porter postulated that regulations to protect the environment could have positive effects not only on the environment itself, but on industry as a whole. It could actually become more competitive and have a "win-win" case.
The thrust of Porter's argument is that industry works in a world of dynamic competition. They can, and must, develop their processes, make better use of raw materials and change their products. "Properly designed environmental standards can trigger innovations," he said.
This was in opposition to the "static" view, which basically takes technology, products, processes and consumer needs as fixed.
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The relations between the basic laws of circuit theory (Kirchhoff's laws and the conservation of generalized power) are discussed with respect to the active and reactive current components. It is shown that the active and reactive currents do not satisfy Kirchoff’s current law. It is proved that this is not in contradiction with the property that the active and reactive powers satisfy the conservation property.Read full article
This paper deals with the generalization of the symmetrical components technique to periodic non-sinusoidal three-phase currents and voltages. The generalization of the concept of symmetrical components is discussed together with their derivation in both time and frequency domain.Read full article
The paper introduces two definitions of instantaneous reactive power terms, which are conservative in every network and apply even under non-sinusoidal conditions. Both quantities coincide with usual reactive power for sinusoidal operation, however they assume a different meaning for distorted behaviour. The first one is an energy-related term, and its unbiased integral accounts for the average energy stored in the network.Read full article
A small transformer with lamination size UI39, here wound in the cheapest way, providing easiest insulation and separation of input against output circuit: Primary winding on one leg and secondary on the other, in a single chamber bobbin each. But this type has an extremely great stray reactance. In principle, the UI core type offers the greatest number of design varieties among small transformers...Read full article
The amplitude and phase modulation effects of waveform distortion in power systems are analyzed. Recalls on Amplitude Modulation (AM) and Phase Modulation (PM) are given with particular reference to spectral components. Then, simple inverse formulas are obtained to demonstrate that summations of one or more small tones frequencies to a given tone of interest can always be interpreted in terms of AM and PM.Read full article
Methods aimed at locating the position where a fault is occurred can be seen as part of a complex measurement system oriented at more general power quality purposes. This paper faces the comparison between two methods recently proposed in literature for fault-location in distribution networks, based on a distributed and on a single-ended measurement system, respectively. By assuming a common distribution system topology, the two methods are applied in order to compare their performances as well as the obtained results.Read full article
This article is a response to a paper presented at the sixth International Workshop on Power Definitions, a report that rejected the fact that the Poynting vector (PV) provides useful information “for academic interpretation of power properties and for practical applications of power theory”. This study explains how the PV reveals the existance of power oscillations unexplained by simple mathematical models used in the basic circuit theory.Read full article
‘Since 1990 the rate of improvement in energy efficiency has been about half of what it was in previous decades.’
This is one of the main findings of the most recent report published by the IEA, International Energy Agency.
Are our action plans and our projects not working? Are they working but not delivering?Read full article
Successful in generating enthusiasm, less so in good management
The idea of energy generation on the community level dates back to the alternative energy activists pleading for 'soft energy paths' in the seventies. The idea got new emphasis in the late nineties with the revival of renewable energy as a viable means of climate change mitigation.
The Sustainable Technologies Programme (STP) is a research initiative of the UK Economic and Social Research Council. They recently funded a study investigating the role of community initiatives in the implementation and embedding of Sustainable Energy Technologies in the UK. Six case studies were investigated in depth.
The findings revealed that the local acceptance of such initiatives was high and that there was a positive impact on the public's understanding and support for renewable energy. Where the initiative successfully connected to an existing network of activists, it resulted in lots of enthusiasm and creativity along with the commitment to making innovations work.Read full article