December 3rd


Flicker is the impression of unsteadiness of visual sensation induced by cyclic variation in the intensity or spectral content of a light source due to fluctuation of the supply voltage. It does not have any important effect on equipment, but it affects the concentration and productivity of people.

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Introduction to Unbalance

Unbalance can be caused by the presence of single-phase generators, such as photovoltaic units, unbalanced impedance of the distribution system, due to geometric effects, and unequal loading of the phases. Unbalance can have a serious effect on the performance and energy efficiency of three-phase equipment such as induction motors, transformers and electronic converters. In most circumstances, serious unbalance can be avoided by good installation practice, but some loads, such as railways, require special attention.

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Introduction to Voltage Dips

This Application Note discusses the causes and effects of voltage dips. Some dips are caused within the installation by, for example, starting of heavy motors or other loads, and these are usually easy to identify and resolve. Most dips originate in the supply network as the result of faults and these can neither be predicted nor controlled by the user. The causes and characteristics of network dips are discussed.

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Survey of Regulatory and Technological Developments Concerning Smart Metering in the European Union Electricity Market

Jorge Vasconcelos, Florence School of Regulation

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December 2nd

Energy Project Analysis with RETScreen

RETScreen International is a unique decision support tool developed with the contribution of numerous experts from government, industry, and academia. Over the coming months, Leonardo ENERGY will be publishing a series of webcasts on energy project analysis using RETScreen.

RETScreen 4: Overview and Introduction

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November 27th

Kyoto target achievable for EU-15

But use of Kyoto mechanisms and carbon sinks required

There has been a lot of buzz in recent years about the EU-2020 emission reduction targets. So much in fact, that we might quite easily forget that the first Kyoto goal set by the European Union has still not been achieved - the final date for that goal is 2012. This goal was established for the EU-15 and not for the EU-27 as are the 2020 targets. It prescribes an average annual emission level of -8% compared to the base year for the period from 2008 to 2012.

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November 26th

Protecting Power Transformers From Common Adverse Conditions

Ali Kazemi, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
Casper Labuschagne, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

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November 14th

Development of Economical Analysis and Technical Solutions for Efficient Distribution Transformers

A.F. Picanço, C de Salles, M.L.B. Martinez, P.C. Rosa, H.R.P.M. de Oliveira

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November 12th

Techno-economic Analysis of Methods to reduce Damage due to Voltage Dips

A voltage dip is a Power-Quality phenomenon, often caused by short circuits in the electricity grid, in which the supplying voltage decreases during a short period of time (typically <2s). Some process components, such as variable speed drives and computers, are extremely sensitive to such dips, which may result in a complete process outage.

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November 5th

REEEP / UNIDO Training Package for Sustainable Energy Regulation and Policymarking for Africa

A new training package on “Sustainable Energy Regulation and Policymaking for Africa” is now freely available via the REEEP website. Developed by UNIDO with contributions from a number of organisations, and co-funded by REEEP, it provides an introduction to the key issues relating to the energy market and energy regulation as they affect sustainable energy.

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