Earthing Systems - Fundamentals of Calculation and Design

This Application Note discusses the principles of earthing electrode design with particular emphasis on earth potential distribution of various electrode geometries. 

The electrical properties of the ground and variations according to type and moisture content are discussed.  The equation for calculation of the earthing resistance and potential distribution for an idealized hemispherical earth electrode is derived. The concepts of step and touch voltages are discussed and the effect of earthing electrode geometry shown.

The concepts developed in this Application Note are the basis for the practical guidance given in Cu0121 – Earthing Systems: Basic Constructional Aspects.

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